Here is a high-level timeline for those who have not read the Silmarillion:
455 – Battle of Sudden Flame, Morgoth breaks the siege of Angband.
472 – Battle of Unnumbered Tears, Morgoth crushes the elven alliance,
kills Fingolfin, and drives the rest of the elves into hiding.
between this time lies the stories of Beren, Luthien, Turin, and the destruction of Gondolin, Nargothrond, and Doriath
545-587 – Valar arrive and fight the War of Wrath, eventually defeating Morgoth.
590 – Morgoth defeated. Somtime later, Numenor raised as a gift
to the remaining Edain as a reward for fighting alongside the elves.
Note that by 540, Morgoth effectively controls Beleriand, with small
communities struggling for survival in the south, or living as
outlaws. All the in-between stuff from 472 to 540 is just the final
motions of rooting out the remaining pockets of resistance.